While most cultures base their cosmologies on familiar units such as few hundreds or thousands of years, the Hindu concept of time embraces billions and trillions of years. Hindu sages describe time as cyclic, an endless procession of creation, preservation and dissolution.
Holy Cow Hinduism’s Sacred Animal most ultimately came to see the cow as a sacred animal to be esteemed, not eaten. reverence for cows can be found throughout the religion’s major. "ALL ABOUT HINDUISM" is intended to meet the needs of those who want to be introduced to the various facets of the crystal that is Hinduism. Death is a temporary cessation of physical activity, a necessary means of recycling the resources and energy and an opportunity for the jiva (that part which incarnates) to reenergize itself, review its programs and policies and plan for the next phase of life.
But the original use of the term was peculiarly religious, referring to a cultic act in which objects were set apart or consecrated and offered to a god or some other supernatural power; thus, sacrifice should be understood within a religious, cultic context.
This relationship may be conceived in a variety of forms. Although moral conduct, right belief, and participation in religious institutions are commonly constituent elements of the religious life, cult or worship is generally accepted as the most basic and universal element.
In a sense, what is always offered in sacrifice is, in one form or another, life itself. Sacrifice is a celebration of life, a recognition of its divine and imperishable nature.
In the sacrifice the consecrated life of an offering is liberated as a sacred potency that establishes a bond between the sacrificer and the sacred power. Through sacrifice, life is returned to its divine source, regenerating the power or life of that source; life is fed by life.
Thus the word of the Roman sacrificer to his god: In a sense, sacrifice is the impetus and guarantee of the reciprocal flow of the divine life-force between its source and its manifestations. Often the act of sacrifice involves the destruction of the offering, but this destruction—whether by burning, slaughter, or whatever means—is not in itself the sacrifice.
Sacrifice as such, however, is the total act of offering and not merely the method in which it is performed. Although the fundamental meaning of sacrificial rites is that of effecting a necessary and efficacious relationship with the sacred power and of establishing man and his world in the sacred order, the rites have assumed a multitude of forms and intentions.
The basic forms of sacrifice, however, seem to be some type of either sacrificial gift or sacramental meal. Sacrifice as a gift may refer either to a gift that should be followed by a return gift because of the intimate relationship that gift giving establishes or to a gift that is offered in homage to a god without expectation of a return.
Sacrifice as a sacramental communal meal may involve the idea of the god as a participant in the meal or as identical with the food consumed; it may also involve the idea of a ritual meal at which either some primordial event such as creation is repeated or the sanctification of the world is symbolically renewed.
Theories of the origin of sacrifice Since the rise of the comparative or historical study of religions in the latter part of the 19th century, attempts have been made to discover the origins of sacrifice.
These attempts, though helpful for a greater understanding of sacrifice, have not been conclusive. In Sir Edward Burnett Tylora British anthropologist, proposed his theory that sacrifice was originally a gift to the gods to secure their favour or to minimize their hostility. In the course of time the primary motive for offering sacrificial gifts developed into homage, in which the sacrificer no longer expressed any hope for a return, and from homage into abnegation and renunciation, in which the sacrificer more fully offered himself.
William Robertson Smitha Scottish Semitic scholar and encyclopaedist, marked a new departure with his theory that the original motive of sacrifice was an effort toward communion among the members of a group, on the one hand, and between them and their god, on the other. Communion was brought about through a sacrificial meal.
In general, the totem animal is taboo for the members of its clan, but on certain sacred occasions the animal is eaten in a sacramental meal that ensures the unity of the clan and totem and thus the well-being of the clan.
The later forms of sacrifice retained some sacramental character: From the communion sacrifice Smith derived the expiatory or propitiatory forms of sacrifice, which he termed piaculum, and the gift sacrifice. There were great difficulties with this theory: Sir James George Frazera British anthropologist and folklorist, author of The Golden Bough, saw sacrifice as originating from magical practices in which the ritual slaying of a god was performed as a means of rejuvenating the god.
When he became old and weak, his mana weakened, and the tribe was in danger of decline. The king was thus slain and replaced with a vigorous successor.
In this way the god was slain to save him from decay and to facilitate his rejuvenation. The old god appeared to carry away with him various weaknesses and fulfilled the role of an expiatory victim and scapegoat. This occurs through the mediation of the ritually slain victim, which acts as a buffer between the two realms, and through participation in a sacred meal.
The rituals chosen by Hubert and Mauss for analysis, however, are not those of preliterate societies. Another study by Mauss helped to broaden the notion of sacrifice as gift.
It was an old idea that man makes a gift to the god but expects a gift in return. In the Vedic religionthe oldest stratum of religion known to have existed in India, one of the Brahmanas commentaries on the Vedas, or sacred hymns, that were used in ritual sacrifices expressed the same principle: The gift thus creates a bond.
Even more, however, it makes power flow both ways to connect the giver and the receiver; it invites a gift in return. Gerardus van der Leeuwa Dutch historian of religion, developed this notion of gift in the context of sacrifice. In sacrifice a gift is given to the god, and thus man releases a flow between himself and the god.
German anthropologists have emphasized the idea of culture historyin which the entire history of mankind is seen as a system of coherent and articulated phases and strata, with certain cultural phenomena appearing at specific levels of culture. Leo Frobeniusthe originator of the theory that later became known as the Kulturkreislehredistinguished the creative or expressive phase of a culture, in which a new insight assumes its specific form, and the phase of application, in which the original significance of the new insight degenerates.
Working within this context, Adolf E. Jensen attempted to explain why men have resorted to the incomprehensible act of killing other men or animals and eating them for the glorification of a god or many gods.
Blood sacrifice is linked not with the cultures of the hunter—gatherers but with those of the cultivators; its origin is in the ritual killing of the archaic cultivator cultures, which, in turn, is grounded in myth. For Jensen the early cultivators all knew the idea of a mythic primal past in which not men but Dema lived on the earth and prominent among them were the Dema-deities.Due to the multiple benefits from cattle, there are varying beliefs about cattle in societies and barnweddingvt.com some regions, especially Nepal and most states of India, the slaughter of cattle is prohibited and their meat may be taboo..
Cattle are considered sacred in world religions such as Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, and others.. Religions in ancient Egypt, ancient Greece. Death is a temporary cessation of physical activity, a necessary means of recycling the resources and energy and an opportunity for the jiva (that part which incarnates) to reenergize itself, review its programs and policies and plan for the next phase of life.
Hindu Philosophy. The compound “Hindu philosophy” is ambiguous. Minimally it stands for a tradition of Indian philosophical thinking. However, it could be interpreted as designating one comprehensive philosophical doctrine, shared by all Hindu thinkers.
"ALL ABOUT HINDUISM" is intended to meet the needs of those who want to be introduced to the various facets of the crystal that is Hinduism.
by Jayaram V. Hinduism is a universal religion. Its primary emphasis is on universal brotherhood.
It views the world as one family. It believes that man is divine in nature and realization of that supreme truth as the primary aim of all human activity. The significance of cows in Indian society between sacredness and economy Govindasamy Agoramoorthy cultural and sociological significance of the sacred cow in Hinduism.
The authors also The significance of cows in Indian society between sacredness and economy. 8 Anthropological Notebooks, XVIII/3,